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APA, MLA, and Other Citation Styles

Learn how to cite and structure your paper using APA, MLA, and other styles. Includes real world examples of citing articles, annotated bibliographies, references/sources lists, videos and websites, and plagiarism.

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Books on MLA 8th


MLA (Modern Language Association) - common in the humanities, especially History, Philosophy, Literature, Art, Music, and more. There are two editions: 7th and 8th.

Consult your instructor which edition he or she prefers, although it is better to use the more recent 8th Edition.

MLA Core Elements

When creating a citation, you must use the Core Elements by number importance:

Note: Format (such as "Print" or "Web") is not included and is not necessary in the 8th edition.

Format & Examples

Citation Format for In-Text Citations

For quoting somebody else's work, you must use parenthetical citations, which is giving credit of the originator of the source in parentheses. Generally, you must include the author(s) last name(s) and page number(s).

  • "According to Hernandez, in preparing to work with the students at risk, establishing an environment of open communication from the first day is critical (8)"


  • "In preparing to work with the students at risk, establishing an environment of open communication from the first day is critical (Hernandez 8)."

Common examples of citation formats for Works Cited/Bibliographies

At the end of your paper in MLA format, you must have a Works Cited list or Bibliography, listing your citations in alphabetical order. Be sure to indent the 2nd line and beyond.

Resource Format Citation Format Example
Book Use core elements

Hernandez, Paul. The Pedagogy of Real Talk: Engaging, Teaching, and Connecting with Students at Risk. Corwin, 2016, Thousand Oaks, California.

eBook Use core elements

Szymanski, Stephan. Money and Soccer: a Soccernomics Guide. ProQuest Ebook Central, Nation Books, 2015.

Journal Article Use core elements While, Geoffrey M., & Uller, Tobias. "Quo vadis amphibia? Global warming and breeding phenology in frogs, toads and salamanders." Ecography, vol. 37, no. 10, 2014, pp. 921-929. EBSCOHost, Accessed October 31, 2017.
Newspaper article Use core elements Bernstein, Richard. "Romania survives, but it falls behind in Europe." New York Times, 2003 September 21, p. N8, Accessed November 1, 2017

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