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APA, MLA, and Other Citation Styles

Learn how to cite and structure your paper using APA, MLA, and other styles. Includes real world examples of citing articles, annotated bibliographies, references/sources lists, videos and websites, and plagiarism.


Chicago (University of Chicago) and Turabian (Kate L. Turabian) - known for its heavy use of footnotes and cross references, it is commonly used in history books and papers

Chicago Style and Turabian

Notes and Bibliography (NB)

There are 2 parts to citation in Chicago/Turabian: Notes (N) and Bibliography (B).

  1. Notes - also called "footnotes"; must use a footnote for each direct quote or a summary from another source. Use a super scripted (small) number "1" at the end of the quote/summary and follow numerically from there; put that "1" source as a footnote at the bottom of the page
  2. Bibliography - just like APA and MLA, must have a list of references used at the end of the paper; Chicago/Turabian has its own order as well

Format for Notes

To quote or summarize, you must use notes, also called footnotes. They consist of 2 parts:

1. Superscript number at the end of the quote or summary from the resource

2. The footnote containing the citation

To see how it looks in an entire paper in Chicago style, see this example from Purdue University's Online Writing Lab (OWL):

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